All kinds of wigs need to be cleaned and shampooed regularly including short wigs for black women. This is most especially true for African American wigs, regardless if they are made of real human hair or synthetic. The shampooing should be done at least every 10 to 14 days.
Especially if you work frequently in areas where your wig can get dirty easily, then all the more that you have to wash it more frequently. Such elements that can damage it would be cigarette smoke, some oil fumes, paint, etc. You must have the urgency to wash it asap so that you can remove the odor easily.
Fill a basin with water, make it half full or even more. Use cool to lukewarm water and use wig shampoo for it. If you do not have any wig shampoo, then use such mild baby shampoo as a good substitute. You need to be gentle with it as you wash and just hold it up someplace safe. It must dry up naturally on its own.
Photo via masterhairstyle.blogspot.com